Paul's warned against Greek philosophy in 1Corinthians 1:18-31 and  Colossians 2:8. Nevertheless, as Christianity spread though the Roman world, and as a large number of educated church leaders were inculcated with Greek thought, syncretism gradually happened; Stoicism and particularly Platonism were incorporated into Christian ethics and Christian theology.


The Church historian Eusebius suggested that Greek philosophy, although derivative, was concordant with Hebrew notions.  Augustine of Hippo, who  systematized Christian philosophy, wrote, "But when I read those books of the Platonists,  I was taught by them to seek incorporeal truth, so I saw your 'invisible things, understood by the things that are made' " (Confessions 7. 20).


For modern Christians leaders to deny this philosophical underpinning to the religion is counterproductive.  The same can be said of science and Christianity. Although Christian leaders might very well take their time embracing new scientific thought, to deny universally accepted theories, such as Evolutionary Biology, can only damage the credibility of Christianity.  Science and Christianity are in no way incompatible, both can benefit from the other.

The Church Fathers must have agreed that the concept of Holy Ghost was needed and warranted to complete the foundation of  Christian theology.  The Father was remote and removed from human affairs, the Son had departed and was with the Father. When the Disciples, like us, realized  they would be alone, they asked for relief and Jesus replied:

"But now I am going to Him who sent Me; and none of you asks Me, 'Where are You going?' "But because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your heart. "But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you."

                                                                                                                                                                                          John 16:5-15 




The Church Fathers combined Helper, Comforter, Advocate, Holy Spirit, Logos (to some extent), and Divine Reason into one entity: The Holy Ghost, and declared it the third leg of the Trinity.

The Fruit of the Holy Spirit sums up nine attributes of a person or community living in accord with the Holy Spirit, according to chapter 5 of the Epistle to the Galatians: "But the fruit of the Spirit
is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control."

Catholic tradition follows the Vulgate version of Galatians in listing 12 fruits: charity, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, generosity, gentleness, faith, modesty, self-control, and chastity. This tradition was defended by Thomas Aquinas in his work Summa Theologica.


The Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are an enumeration of seven spiritual gifts originating from patristic authors,  later elaborated by five intellectual virtues and four other groups of ethical characteristics. They are: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord.




Note: Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy influenced Hegel, whose concept of the dialectic underlies the tripartite division of art into the Apollonian, its Dionysian antithesis, and their synthesis in Greek tragedy and on to Marx, but that is a rabbit I rather not chase.