The Bible


Several Biblical canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents from denomination to denomination.  The Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Greek Septuagint and the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon, primarily about the biblical apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect.

 I. The Jewish Bible is known in Hebrew as the Tanakh, an acronym of the three sets of books which comprise it: the Pentateuch (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi'im) and the Writings (Ketuvim).


II. The Septuagint a Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible, various biblical apocrypha (1 Esdras, 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh), and deuterocanonical books*

                                                                              *(Tobit, Judith, Baruch, Sirach, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, Wisdom)


III.  The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible. It was to become the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century and is still used in the Latin Church alongside the Hebrew and Greek sources.

IV. The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years. It was the primary Bible of 16th-century English Protestantism and was used by William Shakespeare, Oliver Cromwell, John Knox, John Donne, and John Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim's Progress (1678) It was one of the Bibles taken to America on the Mayflower


V. The King James included the apocrypha, but the English printers after 1827 omitted it.


VI. Gnostic Gospels include the Apocryphon of John, 2nd century codices found in Nag Hammadi
The Apocryphon of John.
The Gospel of Thomas a sayings gospel.
The Gospel of Philip.
The Hypostasis of the Archons.
On the Origin of the World.
The Exegesis on the Soul.
The Book of Thomas the Contender.


VII. The Gothic Bible is the Christian Bible in the Gothic language spoken by the Eastern Germanic tribes in the early Middle Ages. The translation was allegedly made by the Arian bishop and missionary Wulfila in the fourth century. Recent scholarly opinion, based on analyzing the linguistic properties of the Gothic text, holds that the translation of the Bible into Gothic was not or not solely performed by Wulfila, or any one person, but rather by a team of scholars.


The Armenian Bible is due to Saint Mesrob's early-5th-century translation. The first monument of Armenian literature is the version of the Holy Scriptures. Isaac, says Moses of Chorene, made a translation of the Bible from the Syriac text about 411. This work must have been considered imperfect, for soon afterwards John of Egheghiatz and Joseph of Baghin were sent to Edessa to translate the Scriptures. They journeyed as far as Constantinople, and brought back with them authentic copies of the Greek text. With the help of other copies obtained from Alexandria the Bible was translated again from the Greek according to the text of the Septuagint and Origen's Hexapla. This version, now in use in the Armenian Church, was completed around the year 434.

 The Coptic Bible includes some of the earliest translations into any language. Several different versions were made in the ancient world, with different editions of the Old and New Testament in five of the dialects of Coptic: Bohairic (northern), Fayyumic, Sahidic (southern), Akhmimic and Mesokemic (middle). Biblical books were translated from the Alexandrian Greek version.